Search the Reports Database

Search:

:: Online Reports ::

(Looking for ITRC Papers? Click here!)

 

ITRC has provided selected reports written by our staff for use online.

  • The current database holds 87 reports.
  • Click on the column headers to sort by number, title, author, or sponsor.
  • Click on the report title to be taken to a download link.

 

 

Report No. Title Authors Sponsor Description

R 2008-003

ITRC Drip Tape Problem Guide

Charles Burt

This publication is meant to help farmers, dealers, and manufacturers recognize and understand some of the problems that have been experienced with drip tape - problems that are quite different from manufacturing defects. Problems that are quickly detected and properly identified can often be remedied, or be avoided in the future. The report addresses drip tape damage caused by pests, installation, emitter pressure, plugging, and other categories.

R 2006-003

Non-Standard Structure Flow Measurement Evaluation using the Flow Rate Indexing Procedure - QIP

Stuart Styles, Bryan Busch, Daniel J. Howes, Marcus Cardenas

This report details the proper installation and calibration techniques for hydroacoustic meters. The calibration procedure developed as part of this study is called the Flow Rate Indexing Procedure (QIP). The QIP can be competed by a professional technician with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) or a standard current meter. Once the QIP has been used to properly calibrate a hydroacoustic flow meter, the device can then measure and record the flow rate and volume in a channel to within +/- 6% of actual values.

R 2012-001

Wine Grape Irrigation Management

Charles Burt

This report addresses difficulties in calculating correct ET values for wine grapes, and includes tips for wine grape irrigation scheduling, regulated deficit irrigation, soil moisture measurement, and crop canopy cover estimates.

R 2012-002

SBx7 Flow Rate Measurement Compliance for Agricultural Irrigation Districts

Charles Burt, Evan Geer

Senate Bill x7-7 (SBx7-7) requires documented volumetric accounting to individual turnouts for water deliveries. Section 597.3 of the bill lists two very different requirements for devices. This document examines the requirements of SBx7 and the implications for agricultural irrigation districts. The definitions and impacts of flow rate and volumetric accuracy are defined. Example scenarios and solutions are offered, as well as descriptions of applicable devices.

R 2015-001

Practical Guide for Metergates

Charles Burt and Daniel J. Howes

This document contains brief instructions on the use of special round canal gates called metergates for flow measurement. Revised November 2016.

R 2017-001

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Specifications for Water Pumping

Charles Burt, Kyle Feist, Gary Wilson

This information was compiled by ITRC and includes specifications for standards, warranties, submittals, VFD size, and other technical details to aid districts in the selection and implementation of VFD systems.

R 2013-003

Low-Pressure Testing: Pressure Regulating Valves

Charles M. Burt, Kyle Feist

ITRC tested performance characteristics of pressure regulating valves from a variety of manufacturers. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate the ability of different models of valves to regulate the pressure in a low-pressure system.

R 2013-004

Low-Pressure Testing: Microirrigation Emitters

Charles M. Burt, Kyle Feist

It is the intention of this report to investigate the ability of currently marketed products to operate in a truly low pressure irrigation system where energy inputs, in the form of pump discharge requirements, can be minimized.

R 2002-001

Evaporation from Irrigated Agricultural Land in California

Charles Burt, Andrew Mutziger, Daniel Howes, Ken Solomon

CALFED, CSU/ARI

ITRC conducted a multi-year study on evaporation throughout the state of California. The stated intent of this research was to consolidate existing information on evaporation through literature reviews and interviews, and to compute evaporation amounts for representative conditions in California and use those amounts to extrapolate information for the complete irrigated agricultural area of California. This research was to address the question of the approximate magnitude of evaporation - a key piece of knowledge when defining the level of resources that should be committed to solving any problem.

R 2003-001

California Crop and Soil Evapotranspiration

ITRC

CALFED, Department of Water Resources, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

The goal of this publication is to provide water users, consultants, water agency personnel, and others throughout California with information that will: (a) help individual water users with irrigation scheduling and system design and (b) help agricultural water agency personnel with water balances and future planning.

R 2012-005

Effects of Sprinkler, Partial Sprinkler/Drip, and Drip Only Irrigation on Strawberry Transplants - 2011-2012 Data - Final

ITRC

California Department of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region, United Water Conservation District, CSU ARI-Ag Research Initiative

This purpose of the project is to develop an analysis of the current irrigation practices of the strawberry growers on the Central Coast of California. The primary research evaluation will focus on the time period during the establishment of transplants, when sprinklers are used even though drip irrigation is available. This project has targeted the impacts of salinity on young strawberry transplants. This report contains the final data from 2011-2012.

R 2012-004

Effects of Sprinkler, Partial Sprinkler/Drip, and Drip Only Irrigation on Strawberry Transplants - 2010-2011 Data - Final

ITRC

California Department of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region, United Water Conservation District, CSU ARI-Ag Research Initiative

This purpose of the project is to develop an analysis of the current irrigation practices of the strawberry growers on the Central Coast of California. The primary research evaluation will focus on the time period during the establishment of transplants, when sprinklers are used even though drip irrigation is available. This project has targeted the impacts of salinity on young strawberry transplants. This report contains the final data from 2010-2011.

R 2012-003

Effects of Sprinkler, Partial Sprinkler/Drip, and Drip Only Irrigation on Strawberry Transplants - 2009-2010 Data - Final

ITRC

California Department of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region, United Water Conservation District, CSU ARI-Ag Research Initiative

This purpose of the project is to develop an analysis of the current irrigation practices of the strawberry growers on the Central Coast of California. The primary research evaluation will focus on the time period during the establishment of transplants, when sprinklers are used even though drip irrigation is available. This project has targeted the impacts of salinity on young strawberry transplants. This report contains the final data from 2009-2010.

R 2003-011

Chemigation and Fertigation Basics for California

Charles Burt

California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Environmental Monitoring Branch

This article answers basic questions about chemigation and fertigation, including definitions, safety concerns, general rules, and hints for fertigation systems.

R 2010-002

Irrigation District Turnouts

Charles Burt

California Department of Water Resources

This is meant to be a very quick, roughly written primer on irrigation district turnout selection. It by no means covers all of the details, but it might help out.

R 2017-002

Volumetric Flow Measurement Devices: A Practical Guide to Help Meet SB X7-7 Standards

ITRC

California Department of Water Resources

This publication has been funded through a technical assistance program by the Water Use and Efficiency Branch, Division of Statewide Integrated Water Management, California Department of Water Resources (DWR). The target audiences are irrigation districts and others who want to improve measurement accuracy for irrigation flow rates and volumetric deliveries. The focus of this publication is on turnouts (deliveries) to fields or to relatively small groups of fields, as opposed to flow measurement on large canals.

R 2001-004

Bottom Mounted Doppler Flow Meter for Canals

ITRC

California Department of Water Resources and California Energy Commission

Doppler technology, similar to that used by meteorologists to track weather patterns, has been developed and expanded to fill the need for advanced water flow measurement technology that is relatively easy to use, applicable to various hydraulic conditions, and very accurate. This report discusses the operation of Doppler units, provides a comparison of the technology, benefits, cost, and use.

R 2011-002

GIS-Based Irrigation District Flow Routing/Scheduling

Charles Burt, Beau Freeman

California Energy Commission

ITRC undertook to develop a prototype of an intelligent and scalable real-time GIS-based water scheduling and routing software system for irrigation districts, capable of integrating multiple data sources into an information access and management facility featuring collaborative tools with automatic reasoning and analytical capabilities. The results of this study highlight a number of important lessons that will be applied towards future modernization efforts in the state's irrigation districts. These key lessons are outlined in this report, showing a significant progression in the conceptualization, organization, and execution of irrigation district-level DSS tools.

R 2011-001

Motor Reference

Mohamed Grissa

California Energy Commission

This document contains summary information about the following motor topics: motor selection information, AC induction motors, inverter duty motors, variable frequency drives, motor losses, and troubleshooting. The information contained in this document was gathered from a variety of online, interview, and print sources, including NEMA specifications.

R 2011-003

Irrigation System Components and Potentials for Energy Conservation

Charles Burt

California Energy Commission

On-site electricity conservation in irrigation can be accomplished through a series of general steps. The primary focus of the agricultural energy conservation programs of the utilities has been to improve the efficiency of the pumping plant. In general, the electric utilities have provided or subsidized pump testing, along with some form of rebate for replacement or repair of pumps. There are, of course, other irrigation-related aspects of energy conservation. However, this report focuses on on-site electricity conservation in the field.

R 2011-004

Characteristics of Irrigation Pump Performance in Major Irrigated Areas of California

Charles Burt

California Energy Commission

Pumping data was collected from over 15,000 well and non-well pumps throughout the Sacramento, Salinas, and San Joaquin Valley groundwater basins of California. Data was analyzed by basin for each pump type, and averages were calculated based on the whole basin, overall pumping plant efficiency (OPPE), kWh/AF, and subbasins.

R 2011-005

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Controlled Irrigation Pumps: Analysis of Potential Rebate

Charles Burt

California Energy Commission

Well pumps, booster pumps, and a combination of the two are used throughout the agricultural sector to provide water for on-farm irrigation. However, the pump discharge pressures for the majority of irrigation systems are excessive, waiving considerable monetary and power consumption savings. This report analyzes the numerous potential benefits of integrating a variable frequency drive (VFD) to irrigation supply systems and modifying system design philosophies.

R 2011-006

Low Pressure Drip/Micro System Design - Analysis of Potential Rebate

Charles Burt, Daniel Howes

California Energy Commission

Drip/micro irrigation systems are often referred to as "low pressure" systems because the required emitter pressures are relatively low (6-12 psi). However, the pump discharge pressures of systems on flat ground throughout California average 40 psi. This report examines readily attainable system losses by examining individual components of the drip/micro system.

R 2010-001

Hydraulics of Commercial Sand Media Filter Tanks used for Agricultural Drip Irrigation

Charles Burt

California Energy Commission

Sand media filters are commonly used in agricultural drip irrigation systems. They have the advantages of simplicity and large capacities, and are favored by many farmers and designers over other filtration hardware. The primary justification for the research described in this report was to determine if it is possible and reasonable to use lower-than-accepted backflush pressures and thereby reduce the total pressure requirement for drip systems.

R 2008-001

Conversion to Groundwater Pumping with Drip/Micro Irrigation

Charles Burt, Monte Soto

California Energy Commission

Twenty-one irrigation districts in the Central Valley reported "conversion acres". Conversion acres are those on which farmers used only groundwater for drip/micro irrigation although surface irrigation water was available. The dominant factor that influences the conversion was the lack of flexible water delivery service to fields. The extra energy required for groundwater pumping on the 73,000 conversion acres is estimated at 76,000,000 kW-hr/yr.

R 2008-002

Irrigation District Energy Survey

Charles Burt, Daniel Howes

California Energy Commission

The purpose of the survey was to establish a benchmark for the present status of the pumping systems used by agricultural water districts in California and to determine the districts' needs. The needs discussed involve technical assistance, research grant and low-interest loan funding, and district-related policy issues. Thirty agricultural water districts were selected for the survey. These districts were selected based on energy use per acre of irrigated area, size, geographic location, and distribution infrastructure.

R 2007-001

Flap Gate

ITRC

California Energy Commission

ITRC began to investigate early designs of Flap Gates in 1992. Originating in Holland in the 1940s, the Flap Gate is a simple, inexpensive hydraulic gate for automatic upstream water level control. This report includes information on design (the Microsoft Excel files available for download), installation, maintenance, water conservation and efficiency, cost, use, and benefits.

R 2006-002

Volumetric Water Pricing

ITRC

California Energy Commission

This report discusses the concept of volumetric pricing for irrigation water, separated into the following sections: 1) The justification for paying volumetrically, 2) The challenge of charging volumetrically, 3) Characteristics of volumetric charges and influencing factors, 4) Examples of irrigation projects with volumetric charges, and 5) A summary of necessary conditions for volumetric billing.

R 2006-004

Electric Motor Efficiency under Variable Frequencies and Loads

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The primary research objective of this study was to determine motor efficiencies under varying speeds (induced by a VFD controller) and loads. A broader objective was to provide sufficient information to designers and economists so that they could estimate total pumping plant power usage with a VFD-controlled installation. Motors were tested with VFDs as well as across-the-line.

R 2005-003

CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program - Final Report

Charles Burt, Daniel Howes

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This legislation arose from the blackouts and brownouts that hit the state of California during the 2000-2001 winter, caused by a severe imbalance in electricity supply. The primary goal of SB 5x was to reduce peak period electric demand throughout California. As a result of this program, water agencies throughout California exceeded expectations in regard to curtailing peak load and were able to do this with lower-than-expected funding. For more information, visit the ITRC CEC APLRP web page.

R 2004-002

Power Quality - Measurement and Conditioning Related to Variable Frequency Drives in Irrigation Districts

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Irrigation Training and Research Center, working under agreement with the California Energy Commission as part of its Public Interest Energy Research Program, completed a study to examine the quality of electric power that supplies motors for irrigation pumps. This study was performed in three phases: a literature review, field research, and simulation testing.

R 2004-003

Irrigation District Observations on Large Diameter, Low Pressure Pipeline Materials

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This legislation arose from the blackouts and brownouts that hit the state of California during the 2000-2001 winter, caused by a severe imbalance in electricity supply. The primary goal of SB 5x was to reduce peak period electric demand throughout California. As a result of this program, water agencies throughout California exceeded expectations in regard to curtailing peak load and were able to do this with lower-than-expected funding.

R 2005-004

CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program Case Study: Berrenda Mesa WSD

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This case study examines the impact of the program on Berrenda Mesa Water Storage District.

R 1994-002

Estimating the Payback for an Electrical VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) Application in a Pumping Plant Which Presently Spills Excess Pumpage

ITRC

California Energy Commission

This report includes equations and tips for pump selection criteria and estimating the annual KW-HR savings for a VFD installation, including the maximum potential savings and the approximate amount of KW-HR that would have been consumed if one pump had been converted to VFD.

R 1995-001

Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District: Variable Frequency Drive Study

ITRC

California Energy Commission

This study examined the pump station operation at Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District after the installation of a variable frequency drive (VFD) control. A detailed evaluation was made in order to develop specific recommendations on the operation and use of VFDs.

R 2003-006

California Agricultural Water Electrical Energy Requirements

Charles Burt, Daniel Howes, Gary Wilson

California Energy Commission

ITRC conducted an analysis of the energy used to supply water in California agricultural trends in the agricultural water community to predict future energy requrements.

R 1996-003

Buried Drip Irrigation on Pistachios Study - Munger-Poonian Land and Farming Co.

Charles Burt, Stuart Styles

California Energy Commission

A multi-year study and technical support were conducted on commercial fields of pistachios, apples, table grapes, wine grapes, and blueberries in central California. The learning curve required by growers, and energy and irrigation efficiencies was documented.

R 1996-002

Row Crop Drip Irrigation on Bell Peppers Study - Underwood Ranches

ITRC

California Energy Commission

A 3-year study was completed on a commercial field of approx. 50 acres. Design and management support were provided, and improvements were documented in both irrigation efficiency and energy efficiency.

R 1996-001

Row Crop Drip Irrigation on Peppers Study - High Rise Farms

ITRC

California Energy Commission

A 3-year study was completed on a commercial field of approx. 50 acres. Design and management support were provided, and improvements were documented in both irrigation efficiency and energy efficiency.

R 2002-003

Infrared Inspection

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Infrared thermography is the use of infrared radiation to qualitatively and quantitatively express heat signatures and heat differences. Infrared inspection can help identify weak connections in an electrical box, uneven heating of pump windings, overheating of bearings, and many other possibly devastating problems well before any failure occurs. The use of thermography as a preventative tool can increase system reliability and efficiency.

R 2002-006

Variable Frequency Drives and SCADA - Are they worthwhile investments?

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Managers and personnel from five California irrigation districts were interviewed to determine if installing variable frequency drives (VFDs) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems were worthwhile investments.

R 2002-009

Variable Frequency Drives - Planning your system

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Many irrigation districts are installing Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) to increase their level of service to their customers and/or to reduce their energy consumption. This brochure is intended to help irrigation districts properly evaluate what type of VFD they need and how to install it.

R 2001-001

Pumped Storage: Simple Changes, Big Savings

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Several California irrigation districts achieved savings on electrical energy charges by implementing various types of pumped storage systems. Pumped storage uses some type of reservoir to store pumped water at a higher elevation than the original water supply. During times of peak statewide electricity demand, pumping is reduced while water is withdrawn from the reservoir, which acts as a buffer.

R 2001-002

Load Monitoring System

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Arvin-Edison Water Storage District received a loan - from the CEC loan program for the development of new energy conservation technology - in 1995 to develop a program with variable frequency drives. This report discusses the design of the Load Monitoring System, cost, the need for such a system, initial start-up challenges, configuration options, and benefits.

R 2001-005

Adjustable Magnetic Couper

ITRC

California Energy Commission

Efficiency in terms of power consumption is vital and continues to be increasingly important. The use of adjustable speed pumps can reduce energy consumption and improve controllability of pressure or flows. One such technology, the MagnaDrive coupler, has been developed for service in a variety of applications.

R 2001-006

Lookout vs. Intellution Comparison

Kurt Colvin

California Energy Commission

A systematic evaluation was performed on two Human Machine Interface software packages (Lookout from National Instruments and iFIX from Intellution). This was accomplished with a simulated, automated water level control system, using a Control Microsystems SCADAPack PLC. Through the evaluation, Lookout clearly outperformed iFIX in nearly all categories.

R 2001-010

Remote Monitoring and Control - System Set-Up

Xianshu Piao and Lisa Burt

California Energy Commission

This SCADA report presents a basic step-by-step outline for setting up and configuring a system for the remote monitoring and control of equipment. For demonstration purposes, it refers specifically to a system set up by ITRC for testing water level sensors.

R 2005-005

CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program Case Study: North Kern WSD

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This case study examines the impact of the program on North Kern Water Storage District.

R 2005-006

CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program Case Study: Orange Cove ID

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This case study examines the impact of the program on Orange Cove Irrigation District.

R 2005-007

CEC Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program Case Study: Kaweah River Power Authority and Tulare ID

ITRC

California Energy Commission

The Agricultural Peak Load Reduction Program (APLRP) was developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in early June 2001, under the authority of Section 5(b) of California Senate Bill 5x. This case study examines the impact of the program on Kaweah River Power Authority and Tulare Irrigation District.

R 2011-007

Agricultural Water Energy Efficiency

Charles M. Burt, Daniel J. Howes, Beau Freeman

California Energy Commission

ITRC undertook a large, multi-tiered study on agricultural water energy efficiency in California. The resulting survey, research, and testing data from these tasks have led to a better understanding of current agricultural operations in California, as well as illuminated new avenues for energy conservation that could have widespread impact on energy efficiency in the California agricultural industry.

R 2013-002

Pressure Regulating Valve Pilot Characteristics - 2-Way vs. 3-Way Pilots

Charles M. Burt, Kyle Feist

California Energy Commission

This report discusses pressure regulation valves commonly found at the entrance to agricultural irrigation blocks

R 2005-008

Estimated Energy Requirements under Drought Conditions

Charles M. Burt, Daniel J. Howes

California Energy Commission

This study is a continuation of a previous study conducted by ITRC for the CEC summarized in a report titled California Agricultural Water Energy Requirements (ITRC Report No. 03-006), which focused on determining a baseline energy requirement for agricultural sectors as well as analyzing potential future trends in the agricultural water community to predict future energy requirements. This study utilized the data and model developed in the previous analysis in order to quantify the impact of drought conditions on energy requirements of the agricultural water sector.

R 2001-007

Irrigation Consumer Bill of Rights

ITRC

California Energy Commission and Pacific Gas & Electric Company

Cal Poly ITRC, together with various irrigation industry leaders and the Irrigation Dealers Association of California, and with assistance from the California Energy Commission and Pacific Gas & Electric Co., developed the Irrigation Consumer Bill of Rights (ICBR) in 1994.

R 2003-007

Telog PR-31 Water Level Tracker

ITRC

California Energy Commission and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

The Irrigation Training and Research Center, working under a technical service agreement with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Mid-Pacific Region, has undertaken a performance review of advanced electronic water level measurement technologies in irrigation applications. An example is the Telog PR-31 Level Tracker.

R 2003-008

ITRC Weir Stick

ITRC

California Energy Commission and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

The Irrigation Training and Research Center, working under a technical service agreement with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Mid-Pacific Region, has developed a new weir rule for open-channel flow rate measurement.

R 2002-004

Doppler Flow Meters for Turnouts

ITRC

California Energy Commission and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

Irrigation districts, farmers and other agricultural and environmental water users need reliable and low-cost flow meters with integrated dataloggers to measure water velocity and depth with a high level of precision. The Irrigation Training and Research Center has undertaken a performance review of advanced electronic flow measurement technologies in irrigation applications. Examples are the Unidata STARFLOW and the MACE AgriFlo Ultrasonic Doppler Meters.

R 2005-002

Canal Flow Rate Measurement Guidelines - ITRC 2005: Hydroacoustic Meters

ITRC

California Energy Commission and US Bureau of Reclamation

Hydroacoustic flow meters provide remote velocity sampling and integrated flow measurement based on the physical principle called Doppler shift.

R 2015-002

Improving Flow Measurement Accuracy at Farm Delivery Gates in California

Daniel J. Howes and Charles M. Burt

CSU ARI

ITRC constructed a meter gate testing facility and tested five gates of various sizes and designs. Using the new rating tables for the three gates examined, the relative uncertainty is less than ±5 to ±7% at the 95% confidence level. However, in order to ensure accurate flow measurement using these devices, they must be designed and operated within a certain set of recommended conditions.

R 2002-007

Benchmarking of Flexibility and Needs 2002 - Survey of Non-Federal Irrigation Districts

ITRC

Department of Water Resources

ITRC interviewed irrigation district personnel from 17 agricultural districts throughout California. Data were analyzed to determine the degree of water delivery flexibility provided to farmers and the extent of existing and planned district modernization. This report did not include irrigation districts with long-term federal contracts.

R 2003-003

Reclamation Leaching for Salinity Buildup Under Drip/Micro Irrigation of Trees

ITRC

Department of Water Resources and CSU/ARI

ITRC conducted a reclamation leaching experiment in a pistachio orchard in order to quantify the leaching water required to remove salts from the effective root zone of trees. This experiment tested a new reclamation leaching technique - multiple lines of low-flow drip tape were used to apply water to the area of salinity accumulation along a tree row.

R 2003-004

Salinity Patterns on Row Crops under Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) on the Westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California

Charles Burt, Othman Al-Amoudi, Alejandro Paolini

Department of Water Resources and CSU/ARI

The objectives of this study were to identify if there was detrimental salinity buildup in the upper layers of soil caused by the usage of SDI on row crops, identify the extent of any detrimental salinity buildup, and identify successful and/or essential practices used by farmers who use SDI.

R 2003-005

Soil Salinity Accumulation in Orchards with Drip and Micro-spray Irrigation in Arid Areas of California

ITRC

Department of Water Resources and CSU/ARI

A soil salinity accumulation study was conducted to examine the long-term impact of drip and micro irrigation on salinity build-up in orchards, focusing on the salinity concentration pattern across a soil profile. The study assessed the current level of salinity accumulation in orchards irrigated with drip/micro systems and provided information to support recommendations on the most effective and efficient leaching techniques.

R 2001-008

Rapid Appraisal Process and Benchmarking

Charles Burt

FAO/UN and World Bank

The Rapid Appraisal Process (RAP) was documented by Charles Burt and Stuart Styles in the Food and Agriculture (FAO) publication Water Reports 19 - Modern Water Control and Management Practices in Irrigation. ITRC Report R 01-008 provides an update of the spreadsheets used to record field data. The spreadsheets now automatically compute various internal and external indices and summarize them. The recent IPTRID benchmarking indicators are also computed.

R 2001-009

Proceso de Evaluación Rápido (RAP) y Comparación con el Patrón de Referencia (Benchmarking)

Charles Burt

FAO/UN and World Bank

Este documento explica el proceso del diagnostico rápido para proyectos de riego (sistemas de canales). El proceso fue desarrolado por Drs. Charles Burt y Stuart Styles por parte del Banco Mundial y el FAO. El documento explica una programa en EXCEL. Tambien hay dos spreadsheets de EXCEL abajo - uno blanco, y otro para un ejemplo del proceso de diagnostico rápido.

R 2014-002

Winegrape Vineyards and Winery Operations: Energy Efficiency/Sustainability and Expansion

Stuart Styles, Sierra Layous, Sarah Crable

Southern California Edison

As the first phase in a larger study, ITRC completed a characterization of the vineyard and winery sector as it pertains to energy and water usage in the service area of Southern California Edison (SCE). Major tasks included identifying the following items: vineyard and winery demographics within the service area; sustainability and expansion issues in the vineyard/winery industry in California pertaining to energy and water usage; currently available industry and incentives for energy and water conservation.

R 2004-001

Well Efficiency Class in Tulare, California on November 13, 2003

Gary Wilson

Southern California Edison AgTAC Center

ITRC arranged a well efficiency demonstration at the Southern California Edison AgTAC building in Tulare, California in November 2003. The class was organized for Southern California Edison customers.

R 2002-002

Side Mounted Doppler Flow Meter for Canals

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

The Irrigation Training and Research Center has undertaken a performance review of advanced electronic flow measurement technologies in irrigation applications. An example is the SonTek Argonaut Side-Looking (SL) Doppler Flow Meter.

R 2001-011

Evaluation and Modification of a Float Valve for the Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District

Franklin Gaudi

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

This report discusses the evaluation and modification of a float valve for the Delano Earlimart Irrigation District (DEID). The float valve is one part of the system that DEID uses to meet water needs. The float valve assembly includes a frame, float, guide for the float, linkage, and a butterfly valve. Preliminary tests showed that waterhammer was evident at DEID and posed a potential problem. After working with DEID and making two modifications to the float valve, field tests indicate that corrections made to the assembly improved the operation and aids in the prevention of waterhammer.

R 2004-005

Water Level Sensor Testing

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

The findings presented here are the continuation of a series of studies begun in 1998 to test water level sensors under a variety of hydraulic conditions. This report is intended as a supplement to the original 1999 report, entitled "Water Level Sensor and Datalogger Testing and Demonstration" (ITRC Report No. R 99-002), which describes the testing processes in detail and presents detailed results for the first 17 sensors tested. The 2003 research, summarized in this report, includes the testing of five new sensors.

R 2004-006

Water Level Sensor Testing Summary

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

This is a summary brochure of the findings presented in ITRC Reports No. R 99-02 and R 04-005, a series of studies begun in 1998 to test water level sensors under a variety of hydraulic conditions. This document is intended as a quick reference and includes the sensor selection guides and ratings tables from the previous reports.

R 2003-010

Underground Pipe Locating Demonstration at Arvin-Edison Water Storage District

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

The Irrigation Training and Research Center arranged an underground pipe locating demonstration/presentation at the district in August 2003.

R 1996-004

Status and Needs Assessment: Survey of Irrigation Districts

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

ITRC gathered data from 61 agricultural districts in the US Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Mid-Pacific Region by interviewing irrigation district personnel and studying their Water Conservation Plans. These districts comprise about 90 percent of the irrigated acreage in the Mid-Pacific Region. Data were analyzed to determine general demographic information, the degree of water delivery flexibility provided to farmers, and the extent of existing and planned district modernization.

R 1998-002

Drip/Micro Irrigation Survey for Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

DEID obtained a grant from USBR Mid-Pacific region to examine perceptions of its farmers regarding future conversions to drip and micro-irrigation. DEID then contracted with the Irrigation Training and Research Center (ITRC) at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo to conduct and analyze a survey of DEID farmers with the objectives of answering several questions. This report presents the pertinent data and results from the survey.

R 1999-005

District Application of Hand Held Data Recorder Technology

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

A hand held data recorder (HHDR) enables a district to collect field data in a quick and virtually error-free manner. The data gathered with HHDRs depend on the needs of each district: meter readings-totalizer, meter flow rates, crop type and double crop tracking, crop growth stage, meter status, maintenance codes for meter repairs, maintenance codes for meter area, water use type, pump runtimes, weather data, and power meter readings.

R 1999-004

Hand Held Data Recorder (HHDR)

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

An HHDR is used to collect data from the field and to download that data to a database to generate reports for meters in the irrigation districts.

R 1999-003

Managing District Data Needs - Narrowing in on a Moving Target

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

Ditchriders in San Luis Water District, Panoche Water District, Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District, Westside Water District, glide-Kanawha Water District, and Central California Irrigation district use or are beginning to use hand held data recorders (HHDR) to gather field information.

R 1999-002

Water Level Sensor and Datalogger Testing and Demonstration

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

Electronic water level sensing equipment is becoming increasingly important for the implementation of water conservation programs in irrigation districts. A need has risen for information on costs, advantages/disadvantages, required support equipment, and required maintenance for the various options. ITRC conducted a yearlong study on water level sensors and dataloggers and produced this report.

R 1999-001

Simple, Portable Water Level Monitoring Package

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

Supplemental report to "Water Level Sensor and Datalogger Testing and Demonstration" Covers the details necessary to to put together a simple, portable water level monitoring package.

R 2000-005

Benchmarking and Flexibility and Needs 2004 - Survey of Irrigation Districts

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

ITRC interviewed irrigation district personnel from 60 agricultural district representing approximately 91% of the irrigated acreage within the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), Mid-Pacific Region. The purpose of this Survey was to: identify the extent of flexibility of water delivery presently offered by irrigation and water districts to farmers; identify educational programs in which districts currently participate or have accomplished; and identify improvements which can be made in regards to technology and water conservation and what types of assistance districts will require in the future to make those improvements.

R 2002-010

Basic Design of Replogle Flumes

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region

To facilitate accurate flow measurement, this paper describes specific design and construction considerations applicable to Replogle flumes in irrigation applications. A design example is provided to illustrate these concepts.

R 2000-006

Actuators for Sluice Gates - Alternatives to Commercially Available Products

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region and Yuma Area Office

Gate actuators provide a method of raising and lowering canal gates using electric motors instead of human power. ITRC has investigated four alternatives to commercially available actuators designed specifically for the operation of canal gates.

R 2004-007

Benchmarking of Flexibility and Needs - 2004

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region

ITRC interviewed irrigation district personnel from 25 agricultural districts in eastern Washington, northern Idaho and western Montana. Data were analyzed to determine the degree of water delivery flexibility provided to farmers and the extent of existing and planned district modernization. This is the fourth such report the ITRC has published for irrigation districts in the western US. This report includes districts that receive at least some water from federal facilities.

R 2003-009

Government Highline Canal - A Win-Win Solution

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Region

The Irrigation Training and Research Center, working under a technical service agreement with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Upper Colorado Region, Western Colorado Area Office, performed canal modernization on the Government Highline Canal in the form of automated canal structures, in-system storage, and new operational procedures that could significantly reduce operational spill.

R 2000-004

Evaluation of Anti-Fouling Paints

ITRC

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma Area Office

Algae and other growth on Replogle flumes, often used as flow measurement devices in irrigation canals, can effect the accuracy of measurements in those canals. Research was conducted to find a product that would prevent buildup on the flumes. Hard Anti-fouling paint, designed to be applied to concrete rather than fiberglass, wood, steel or iron, was the type of paint used in this study.

R 2014-001

Integrating Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration with Applied Water to Target Potential Water Conservation Projects in Watersheds

Daniel J. Howes, Stuart Styles

USDA National Integrated Water Quality Program

The overall purpose of the project was to develop a methodology for watershed managers to successfully target and release recommendations to growers that could benefit from improved on-farm irrigation management. The Modified Indicator that was developed for the project can be used as a targeting approach for water managers to narrow down the number of possible fields that need attendtion, and offers the ability to prioritize efforts and focus resources to maximize benefits.

R 1998-001

Modern Water Control and Management Practices in Irrigation: Impact on Performance

Charles Burt, Stuart Styles

World Bank

This research addressed the basic questions of what levels of water delivery service are presently provided by irrigation projects having some aspect of modernization; what hardware and software features impact those levels of service; whether modern water control and management practices in irrigation make a positive difference in performance; and what universal lessons can be learned and applied. The full published report is also available from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Water Report 19, ISBN 92-5-104282-9, publications-sales@fao.org